Immunotherapy is a type of treatment that aims to boost the body’s own immune system to fight cancer cells. By harnessing the ability of the immune system, immunotherapies can attack cancers in a unique way. Immunotherapy is sometimes referred to as biologic therapy. Biologic therapies are those which are made from living substances.1,2
Immunotherapies used to treat blood cancer
Different types of immunotherapy are used to treat some blood cancers, including:1,2
How does immunotherapy work?
Each of the different types of immunotherapy work in a different way to boost the immune system.
Monoclonal antibodies are created in the lab to mimic the antibodies made in our bodies. They target specific areas of cancer cells to help block cancer growth or kill cancer cells. They may also be used to deliver chemotherapy drugs to cancer cells. Some monoclonal antibodies are referred to as a type of targeted therapy. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies that help the immune system identify and attack cancer cells.1-3
Cytokine therapy mimics the cytokines made in the body. Cytokines are substances that help the immune system work. Cytokine therapies used to treat certain types of blood cancer include interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF).1-3
Donor lymphocyte infusion
In some cases, donor lymphocyte infusion may be used as a follow-up procedure to a stem cell transplant. In donor lymphocyte infusion, lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) are collected from the donor who gave stem cells. They are then given to the person with blood cancer.1,2
CAR T-cell therapy
CAR T-cell therapy is one of the latest advances in immunotherapy. T-cells are a type of white blood cell that are responsible for fighting infections and cancer cells. However, many cancer cells evolve to slow or stop the normal T-cell response. With CAR T-cell therapy, the person's T-cells are removed from their blood. They are then genetically modified with receptors on their surface called chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). These receptors allow the T-cells to recognize and attach to a specific antigen (a type of protein) found on the surface of blood cancer cells. The engineered T-cells are replicated and then infused back into the person with cancer.3
What are the possible side effects of immunotherapy?
Side effects can vary depending on the specific immunotherapy you receive. The most common side effects include:1
These are not all the possible side effects of immunotherapy. Talk to your doctor about what to expect or if you experience any changes that concern you during treatment with immunotherapy.
Things to know about immunotherapy
To measure the amount of cancer cells in the blood or bone marrow, doctors may order:1
Before beginning treatment with immunotherapy, tell your doctor about all your health conditions and any other drugs, vitamins, or supplements you are taking. This includes over-the-counter drugs.